The ideas for “The Dead” began to take shape in Rome in 1906, where Joyce had arrived with his family on July 31st hoping to improve his financial situation with a bank job paying 250 lire a month. In a letter to his brother Stanislaus, Joyce reflects that perhaps he had been unnecessarily harsh with his native Ireland in the stories he had up to now written for The Dubliners Collection (without a publisher at this time) and that certain Irish virtures such as hospitality and beauty had been left out.

After one last glorious night, getting drunk, getting beat up, and getting robbed of a month’s salary, Joyce retreated to Triest with his family in February, 2007, and it was there that “The Dead” was completed on September 20th

After 7 years of disappointments, the first 1250 copies of The Dubliners were published in London by Grant Richards on June 15th 1914,.